Pulp & Paper Manufacturing adapts Nanotechnology
Pulp & Paper manufacturing is paving a new way of production by encapsulating Nanotechnology, by taking it to next level incorporating the formation and control of scaling and other deposits that leads to metal corrosion in Pulp & Paper Industry. The manufacturing process involves stagnation of tiny colloidal and Nano particles that are located on the metallic surface due to defects encompassing in the metal and the hindrance causing the dynamic flow of the fluid inside the pipeline or other areas. Thus, becoming powerful centers of adsorptions of other particles and materials based upon the charge and other properties. Harsh materials such as Cellulose, hemicelluloses, sugar molecules, ray cells, abrasive materials and many more are piled up by centering on the Nano particles.
As per the latest trend the above process is termed as “The formation of Nucleus” over the micro-organisms or the deposits to grow. The deposit in it consolidates and become harder within few minutes, for example on the evaporator internal surface area that cannot be broken by hammering or treatment with hot acids. Fortunately, turning out to be, amazing way of forming the deposit with structural modification from tiny Nano-sized particles to strong minerals, this cannot be decomposed or broken unlikely with the similar fashion. It ultimately forms a part of the material that makes the metal corroded and fragile in nature. It is one of the most interesting phenomena that Nanotechnology manufacturing process has shaped up.
These harsh materials may get deposited through an adsorption process on the Nano particles due to high surface area. The abrasion and corrosion takes place underneath the metallic pipeline mostly as a result from harsh materials that include acid, alkali and thermal effect. Corrosion happens from the initial metal composition and the microstructure.
A deposit can be formed on the metal surface by different harsh materials individually or through combination of one or more substances. This is in accordance obtained from various deposits and scale samples.
The micro-organisms present can also form the deposits with or without Nano particles. They are created by corrosion or abrasion due to favorable site or formation of the deposits. Sticky and high dense substances, such as extractives are the first to settle on micro-organisms whenever there’s a possibility.
There’s an extensive of opportunities for setting up such extractives during the shutdown periods. Fine and Nano particles induced in the system may be the next particle to settle on the micro-organisms. Other harsh materials may also gradually settle because of the adsorption of Nano particles, which ultimately converts it into a solid scale or a deposit.
The hoarse environment conditions will bring change in quantity and quality of raw materials and additives, which are a common sight in a paper and pulp mills. Hoarse substances are very intimately mixed with each other and follow the dynamic flow patterns of manufacturing process.
Scaling is a common mechanism for formation of hoarse environments, which leads to corrosion and material failure. The solubility equilibrium theory is applied to scale formation due to calcium carbonate and oxalate, where the chemical reactions at molecular level play an important role. The mechanism leading for commencement and growth of scale into a hard composite material is not because of chemical phenomena but also due to the physical and mechanical ascribes. A nucleus of micro or Nano dimensions is first formed on the metal surfaces over which the growth for scale takes place. The defect in metal surfaces, the particles participating in the scale formation and the growth of scales take place through micro and Nano phenomena.
As the concentration of metallic ions in the bulk phase of the solution increases to maximum, the adsorption process continues until ion clusters begin to form on the surface. The ion clusters eventually grow to a critical size and become stable enough to succumb to the pressure of flow. In due course, its density increases and becomes hard. The inorganic ion particles depositing over the nucleus are very small in size, of the order of micro or Nano dimensions and form chemically stable compounds or minerals. Ion by ion growth occurs as ion clusters continue to be absorbed by the existing nuclei on the surface. Any crystal formed in solution may also get entrapped within the rapidly growing scale matrix resulting in to a mixed deposit scale. The thermodynamic parameters like temperature and pressure inside the system count equally as the contributing factors for scale formation.
As the precipitation takes place in-situ, the particles formed are expected to be micro and Nano particles. The fine particles which deposit over this Nano particle are also of micro or Nano size; thus the overall phenomena of scaling can be attributed to micro and Nano systems.
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